­
Welcome, Guest
Username: Password: Remember me

TOPIC: UBI: what it is - an introduction

UBI: what it is - an introduction 27 Mar 2017 06:22 #81

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
UBI (briefly)

An Unconditional Basic Income (UBI) is an income unconditionally granted to all members of a political community on an individual basis, without means test or work requirement. Unlike existing minimum income schemes in european countries, UBI is universal, individual, unconditional, and high enough to ensure an existence in dignity and participation in society.
What is Unconditional Basic Income?


Universal: Every person, irrespective of age, descent, place of residence, profession etc. will be entitled to receive this allocation.

Individual: Everyone has the right to UBI on an individual basis as this is the only way to ensure privacy and to prevent control over other individuals. UBI will be independent of marital status, cohabitation or household configuration, or of the income or property of other household or family members.

Unconditional: As a human right UBI shall not depend on any preconditions, whether an obligation to take paid employment, to be involved in community service, or to behave according to traditional gender roles. Nor will it be subject to income, savings or property limits.

High enough: The amount should provide for a decent standard of living, which meets society’s social and cultural standards in the country concerned. It should prevent material poverty and provide the opportunity to participate in society and to live in dignity.

We emphasize that UBI should not replace the compensatory welfare state but rather complete and transform it into an emancipatory welfare system.

Source: Basic Income Europe

To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40, El-dudeareno, jobber, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction 27 Mar 2017 07:15 #89

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
UBI (explained more)



From Liberia, to Tokyo, to the Cherokee Nation and Old Europe, more and more people are talking about Basic Income in all kinds of different forums. If the global economic and environmental crises have had any positive effect it would be that people are fighting back. As history has so often shown, the neediest people are those who best understand human rights (in their absence).

For more than three millennia the three basic principles of human rights, freedom, justice and human dignity, have been inscribed on clay and stone tablets, parchment and paper, usually after they have been shouted for and fought for, all around the world, in streets, squares and a variety of battlefields, from Mount Vesuvius (Spartacus) to slave ships.

Nobody has to be taught these principles because all humans understand them as their rights. In the concept of “universal human rights”, “universal” is redundant since the qualifier “human” means all humans. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), it qualifies “Declaration”, suggesting the geographical scope of the proclamation rather than rights for all humans.

In any case, the “universal” rights it pledged were swiftly rendered into separate “generations” of broken promises floating above and outside social and juridical institutions, without any mechanisms of guarantee and bestowed piecemeal by leaders or in the warped forms of humanitarianism and charity, although it is obvious that the generalised nature of a human right theoretically distinguishes it from any privilege confined to a group, class or caste.

Now, with the obscenely growing gap between rich and poor, when it is estimated that by 2016 the richest 1% will own more than the rest of the world, the universal principle is more urgent than ever.

Basic Income is one very practical example of a universal human right. 

It is not just an economic measure to eradicate poverty but an income paid by the State to each member or accredited resident of a society, regardless of whether he or she wishes to engage in paid employment, or is rich or poor, independently of any other sources of income and irrespective of cohabitation arrangements in the domestic sphere.

The fact that everyone receives a Basic Income doesn’t mean that everyone gains: the rich lose. How to finance it is as important as the quantity involved and we favour progressive tax reform which redistributes wealth from the rich to the rest of the population. Precisely the opposite of recent trends. In guaranteeing the most basic right of all, that of material existence, it would bring a host of side benefits, as many studies show.
In the case of work, for example, it could have a major positive impact, not only in this regard but also in other spheres. With her momentous climate change alert This Changes

Everything, Naomi Klein pulls together elements of science, politics, geopolitics, economics, the “stupid growth” and “stupid profits” of capitalism, “extractivism”, patriarchy, psychology, ethics and activism, inter alia, which shape the future of the planet. She concludes that there is an urgent need for valuing work that we currently don’t value and specifically mentions Basic Income, saying, “there has to be a stronger social safety net because when people don’t have options, they’re going to make bad choices”. For Klein, the “universal” sense of Basic Income is that it could help to transform the way we treat and think about our whole (social and physical) environment.

After years of having relatively few supporters, the idea of Basic Income is now spreading around the world.

In Spain – probably “the place on Earth where the debate around Basic Income is most advanced” – after five years of public spending cuts, depressed demand, record unemployment, burgeoning poverty, and a growing public debt now at around 100% of GDP, and after twenty years of discussion in universities, grassroots movements and social networks, Basic Income is finally going mainstream. Although the new game-changing left-wing political party Podemos has temporarily retreated from its initial Basic Income proposal in favour of “full employment” (more fitting, perhaps, for the welfare states of the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s), many party members are Basic Income stalwarts. Other political organisations now proposing it include Equo, Pirata and Bildu (a coalition in the Basque Country) and, in Galicia, Anova, while still more small parties have projects which, while not strictly a Basic Income, come close.

A recent number of the Basic Income Earth Network newsletter gives an idea of the worldwide spread of different versions of Basic Income.


Cyprus passed a law giving low income families a Guaranteed Minimum Income of €480 a month.

In 2013, a grassroots movement in Switzerland called for a Basic Income of 2,500 Swiss francs per month and received over 100,000 signatures needed to force a referendum on the proposal. Thereferendum was held in 2016 and while, as anticipated, the results were negative, it is important to notice that 1 in 5 voted in favour of the proposal.


Now recognising that inequality and social justice are also “green” issues, the fast-growing Green Party of England and Wales has announced that a Basic Income will be included in its manifesto.

Finland in January 2017, started implementing a cut down version of UBI.
A group of Dutch cities will take part in a limited experiment and in Scotland, possible trials have been considered.

Outside Europe, Basic Income is gaining support in other industrialised countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Japan.

Alaska is an outstanding example because since 1982 it has had its own particular form of Basic Income, an unconditional annual dividend paid on an individual basis to all people who have lived there for at least twelve months (except those convicted of felony in the past year). The Alaska Permanent Fund (APF), consisting of 25% of the proceeds of the state’s mineral (oil and gas) sales or royalties, foots the bill. The annual payout is based on a five-year average of APF earnings and has varied from $331.29 in 1984 to $3,269 in 2008. Although this “Basic Income” doesn’t entail tax reform, its benefits are undeniable. Alaska features among the states with the lowest poverty rates in the United States and is one of the least unequal. In 2009, the dividend added US$900 million to Alaskans’ purchasing power, the equivalent of 10,000 new jobs.

The idea of Basic Income has taken root in the countries of the South as an anti-poverty measure, for example in Brazil, Namibia and South Africa. Brazil is the world’s first country to have adopted a law (2003) calling for gradual introduction of a Basic Income.

In South Africa, trade unions, churches and many NGOs are calling for it and, in Namibia, the Basic Income Grant Coalition (headed by the Council of Churches, National Union of Namibian Workers, Namibian NGO Forum, National Youth Council and the Namibian Network of AIDS Service Organisations) conducted a two-year pilot project (2007–2009) in Otjivero-Omitara, a low-income rural area, where 930 inhabitants received a monthly payment of 100 Namibian dollars each (US$12.4).
The payment was small but the results were surprising: numbers of underweight children went from 42% to 10%; school dropout rates fell from 40% to almost 0%; the number of small businesses increased, as did the purchasing power of the inhabitants, thereby creating a market for the new products. However, the Namibian government has thus far balked at introducing a national Basic Income.

In Mexico City a pension paid as a right to all people (some 410,000) of 68 years and over has also paid social dividends: increased autonomy and freedom of the aged, more respect in the family milieu, greater public visibility, improved self esteem, better nutrition and health, and a decrease in social inequality.

In 2010, a partial Basic Income was introduced in India in a UNICEF-supported pilot scheme conducted by the trade union Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA). For one year, 6,000 individuals in rural areas of Madhya Pradesh received an unconditional payment, working out at about US$24 per month for the average family. The project ended with improved nutrition, health, education, housing and infrastructure, economic activity and, especially, educational attainment.
Canada, is maybe the most important UBI experiment (they run a limited pilot already in the 70’) at present and the province of Ontario is scheduled for a larger trial soon.

Other initiatives, related to Basic Income to the extent that they are “free money programmes” have given one-off payments to homeless people in London, to the poor inhabitants of a village in the west of Kenya, and to girls and women in Malawi.

All of them show clear correlations between free money and lower crime rates, reduced inequality, less malnutrition, lower infant mortality and teenage pregnancy rates, less truancy, better school completion rates, greater economic growth and higher emancipation rates.

Then there is the interesting case of Cherokee, North Carolina (population 8,000) where the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Nation owns the casino. In 1996, the tribal council voted to distribute half the casino’s profits evenly among its approximately 15,000 members so as to give the community a share in the gambling wealth. The payouts have risen from $500 to about $10,000 per person per year. Jane Costello, a Duke University researcher who has been studying  the effects of these payments on 1,420 Cherokee-area children over the last twenty years, comparing the lives of poor children who got the payments with those who didn’t, found that, some years on, those getting the payments were one grade ahead in school compared with those who didn’t, overall mental health improved, and behavioural problems in this group decreased by 40% and crime rates by 22%.

The “partial” Basic Income programmes and one-off “free money” initiatives are instructive because they demonstrate that small unconditional payments can make great differences in social and mental health. If a one-off non-universal payment can have such positive effects, what could a “true” Basic Income do?

But what is a Basic Income? There is some confusion here because what is often thought to be “Basic Income” takes many forms and different names. Spain, for example, has a “renda garantida de ciutadania” in the Statute of Catalonia, while in other Autonomous Regions it appears as a “salario social” or “renta mínima de inserción”. However, these are all conditioned subsidies for people below a certain income threshold.


Basic Income is enshrined as a human right in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1 (3):

The right to a basic income or universal citizen’s income that guarantees to every human being, independently of age, gender, sexual orientation, civil or employment status, the right to live in material conditions of dignity. To this end, a regular cash payment, financed by tax reforms and covered by the state budget, and sufficient to cover his or her basic needs, is recognised as a right of citizenship of every member-resident of the society, whatever his or her other sources of income may be.

Rather than holding out a right to having certain minimal vital needs covered in cases of poverty or some catastrophe, Article 1 (3) enshrines Basic Income as a right, an ongoing guarantee to every single individual of being able “to live in material conditions of dignity”. No one would be excluded by poverty from engaging in social life and exercising her or his rights and duties as a citizen. It conceives of this right on a universal scale, for rich and poor, developed or developing countries alike.

A guaranteed basic income, above the poverty line, for everybody, would offer a much firmer, autonomous base of existence to (theoretically) all the world’s citizens.

The economic independence furnished by a basic income, paid not to households but to individuals, would establish a kind of domestic “counter-power” that could strengthen the bargaining position of women, especially those dependent on the husband or male head of the family, or low earners in exploitative, part time or discontinuous employment. Many farmers in poor countries and workers in developed countries are struggling to survive.

In capitalist economies, unemployment is comparable with the landlessness of small farmers in agrarian societies because both economies are characterised by dispossession of land and other means of production.

The dispossessed must then sell their labour, usually in crushing conditions, in order to subsist. One of the basic features of today’s economic functioning is the great power of capital to bring the working population to heel. Underlying this disciplinary capacity is the existence of a large, jobless part of the population. When the possibility of dismissal looms ever-larger, the working population must accept increasingly worse conditions from bosses having the whip hand. In a situation close to full employment, when this existed, the power of employers was diminished.

A Basic Income would represent an effective tool for countering the disciplinary power of capital and would make leaving the job market a viable option.

Although it may seem paradoxical at first sight, many unions (with a few honorable exceptions) have failed to understand the enormous capacity of Basic Income for undermining the discipline that capital can and does impose in a situation of widespread unemployment.

In poor countries this possibility of non-dominated organisation of labour power could bring into being alternative networks of production while also protecting traditional ways of life. For example, a group of small farmers could buy a tractor to increase food production, and a truck to take their produce to a market. This would expand productive networks and encourage sustainable community development, which would then give villagers more effective leverage in claiming essential or improved infrastructure, for example schools, clinics, roads and bridges.

In a post-conflict situation, a Basic Income would also have beneficial effects by enabling a return to traditional forms of community-based production and, thus reintegrating people, would help to defuse the potential for violence that flares up periodically and dramatically especially among uprooted young people who have no opportunities to work, or because evident signs of increasing social inequality in a traumatised society are a permanent flashpoint for a generalised feeling of injustice.

Food security is vitally important. Such a basic matter as a well-balanced diet could be greatly favoured, for example, if people could transport vegetables to the coast and fish to inland villages. This alone could make a notable difference in the overall health of the population.

Economic development is better achieved by breaking ties of dependency and promoting robust productive initiatives at both individual and group levels, projects that are conceived and planned within the society as opposed to the often drastically inappropriate schemes that are imposed from outside aid agencies.

A Basic Income is not difficult to finance, as an exhaustive study for Catalonia has shown. Another study recently carried out for the Kingdom of Spain as a whole, based on a sample of almost two million income tax declarations, showed that a Basic Income at the poverty threshold of €7,500 per year (and a fifth of that to under-eighteens) could be financed without touching any social service and, moreover, saving a lot in administrative costs and welfare payments of lesser sums, which would be abolished.

A person getting a pension of €1,500 per month would receive the same (€650 as Basic Income and €850 as a pension) but the person now receiving benefits or a pension of €400 would receive €650, more than 60% extra. These two studies are based on a system of progressive income tax redistribution in which the richest 20% would finance the Basic Income, which they would also receive. The lower-income 70% of the population would gain; a neat reverse of the present situation. Introducing a Basic Income is not an economic problem but a political one.

Each zone and country is different, but financing should basically entail changing budgetary priorities, reform of taxation systems or increasing VAT and excise duties on luxury goods, cars, alcohol or tobacco, and financial transaction taxes, for example.

This achieves a substantial reduction in inequality of income distribution and greater simplicity and internal coherence in taxation and welfare systems. Basic Income isn’t a panacea that would solve all the world’s social and economic problems, but it would mean wider-spread opportunities for people to participate in productive activities, enhanced social inclusion within stronger communities, greater political and social participation, and a major reduction of poverty and poverty-related problems.

It is not an isolated economic policy but part of an overall project in the domain of political economy, aiming to guarantee and fortify the material existence of the whole population. It is an institutionally guaranteed and inclusive form of property that might also be seen as a kind of indemnification of past and present wrongs because it calls upon the more privileged citizens to contribute towards achieving the right of existence for everyone. Herein resides the political obstacle to Basic Income.

Liberally adapted from the original article by Authors:

Daniel Raventós is a lecturer in Economics at the University of Barcelona and author inter alia of Basic Income: The Material Conditions of Freedom (Pluto Press, 2007). He is on the editorial board of the international political review Sin Permiso.

Julie Wark is an advisory board member of the international political review Sin Permiso. Her last book is [url=v]The Human Rights Manifesto[/url] (Zero Books, 2013).

Source: Counterpunch
To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40, El-dudeareno, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction 27 Mar 2017 07:22 #90

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150

Two videos tat may help to illustrate some of the important socio-political aspect of the concept of an Universal Basic Income:

A Basic Income for everybody!


and a lecture from one of leading exponents of UBI and of the post-socialist policies associated with it: Guy Standing. His book "The Precariat The New Dangerous Class" summons all the social and political threads of the post-industrial age.



To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40, El-dudeareno, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction 27 Mar 2017 07:25 #91

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150

"This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. Rutger Bregman (1988) studied at Utrecht University and the University of California in Los Angeles, majoring in History. In September 2013 Bregman joined the online journalism platform De Correspondent. His article on basic income was nominated for the European Press Prize and was published by The Washington Post.

In September 2013 Bregman joined the online journalism platform ‘De Correspondent’. His article on basic income was nominated for the European Press Prize and was subsequently also published by the American newspaper The Washington Post. In September 2014 his newest book ‘Gratis geld voor iedereen En nog vijf grote ideeën die de wereld kunnen veranderen’ came out. "


To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction 27 Mar 2017 07:27 #92

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
To me, it sums up the gist of what UBI is and represents:

"How can we be free if the very elements we need to survive - food, water and land - are owned by someone else, mostly corporations. Once the land was freely available to all. Now If we try and take what the earth provides we'll be locked away."




To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40

UBI: what it is - an introduction 28 Mar 2017 03:47 #190

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
Why we shouldn't have to work just to survive



A brazenly refreshing talk from a young UBI supporter from across the border:

"Jonny Ross-Tatam, the founder of the Buchanan Institute, Scotland’s first student-led think tank, focuses on the roots of innovation and progress. In his talk he promotes the idea of basic income, covering all citizens’ basic needs, to allow people to pursue their passions.
Jonny studies History at the University of Edinnburgh. He is the founder and president of the Buchanan Institute, Scotland’s first student-led think-tank.
"

To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction 28 Mar 2017 04:07 #191

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
After Robots Take Our Jobs, This Is What the Economy Will Look Like (from 2015)

At the height of its power, the photography company Kodak employed more than 1450,000 people and was worth $28 billion. They even invented the first digital camera. But today Kodak is bankrupt, and the new face of digital photography has become Instagram. When Instagram was sold to Facebook for a billion dollars in 2012, it employed only thirteen people.

Where did all those jobs disappear to? And what happened to the wealth that those middle-class jobs created?


Imagine a world where robots perform the vast majority of our jobs. Food is factory-farmed by automated machines and delivered to us by fleets of drones and self-driving trucks. Our houses are built by giant, roving 3-D printers. We're free to simply pursue our passions and explore. Now ask yourself: How is anyone going to make any money?

For many futurists and economic theorists, the answer is a "basic income," a wage you receive from the government just for being human.

The idea isn't as far-fetched as it sounds.

...



Complementing the article above also note the huge disparity in wealth distribution that are still increasing, the follow video is a few years old but makes visually clear the disproportionate unbalance that has been created. It refers to the USA but a similar mode is present in most Western countries.

To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Paul-UB40

UBI: what it is - an introduction 28 Mar 2017 04:12 #192

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
A British based introduction to UBI.

This 20-minute documentary highlights problems within the UK's benefits system and suggests a surprising solution.

With contribution by Guy Standing, Barb Jackson and others with some real pertinent comments to our Country.


To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40, El-dudeareno, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction 28 Mar 2017 04:19 #193

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
A good comprehensive article reappraising the concept of UBI by freelance journalist Andrew Flowers


What Would Happen If We Just Gave People Money?

Daniel Straub remembers the night he got hooked on basic income. He had invited Götz Werner, a billionaire owner of a German drugstore chain, to give an independent talk in Zurich, where Straub was working as a project manager for a think tank.

He had read an article about the radical proposal to unconditionally guarantee citizens an income and spent a few years casually researching the idea. Straub had heard Werner was a good speaker on the topic, and that night in 2009 he was indeed excellent at connecting with the audience, a sold-out house of 200. “It was a very intense evening; people were paying attention,” Straub recalled.

...
To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction 28 Mar 2017 04:25 #194

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
“... I’m frequently asked for book recommendations. Because of that, I put together a Listmania list, but Listmania no longer exists so I’ve decided to put together a new more comprehensive list here on Medium which I will make a point of updating as new books are released.

The BIG Library: Books About Basic Income

Also, two American articles from the novelist Nicole Sallac about UBI in the USA, they are a medley of from various sources but may convey some of the basics from a more traditional middle-of-the-road standpoint.

“Nicole Sallak Anderson is a novelist, mother, futurist and speaker living in the Santa Cruz Mountains. She’s the author of the eHuman Dawn and eHuman Deception, both available on Amazon. You can check her out here on Medium, on Twitter @NSallakAnderson or her blog www.ehumandawn.blogspot.com.”

Universal Basic Income — The Foundation of a Technically Advanced Society

Universal Basic Income — The Foundation of a Technically Advanced Society, PART TWO
To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Spanner, Paul-UB40

UBI: what it is - an introduction/UNCONDITIONAL BASIC INCOME 101 15 Apr 2017 23:14 #1620

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150

http://www.scottsantens.com/basic-income-faq]Basic Income FAQ

Scott Santens wrote:
Over the years I've been asked many questions about the idea of a basic income guarantee. Some are asked far more than others, and so I've made a point of writing various articles and blog posts to answer many of these questions. Whatever question you may have about basic income, please look below and see if there's a link for it. There's a good chance there will be. If there isn't, please let me know what you'd like to see me add.
To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Paul-UB40, Warrior

UBI: what it is - an introduction/UNCONDITIONAL BASIC INCOME 101 24 May 2017 03:09 #2720

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
For Those Who Believe a Basic Income is Morally Wrong



You obviously have very strong feelings of morality, and especially the "rightness" of your own morality, so I'm certainly not about to attempt to change your mind, or to show how basic income can be seen as somehow being moral in your eyes.

However, I would like to ask you a series of questions in response, if that's okay.

Question 1:
Would you agree that morality is not an absolute but something that exists along a spectrum, such that things aren't necessarily always right or wrong, but degrees of right and wrong, with some things being more right or more wrong than others?

The popular example of this type of thinking is the idea of facing the choice between stealing and saving the life of a member of your family. Is it more wrong to steal food or medicine, or is it more wrong to let your family suffer or die?
Now, I don't know your answer to this question, but if you do recognize that some things are more wrong than others, the question of basic income then becomes "Is basic income more wrong or less wrong than _____?" And this leads to the next question.

Question 2:
Can you think of any situations in which the choice between working and not working is again like the example above, in that your choice is between something wrong (not working in the labor market to earn an income), and something more wrong?

I can't answer this question for you, but I can provide some examples that would fit for others. Karl Widerquist has thoughtfully provided a list of possible objections in chapter 4 of Independence, Propertylessness, and Basic Income, 14 of which I will share here:


A - An objection to the goal or some of the goals of the joint project or of a specific task: One person might believe that the economic system is wrong, because she believes (even if heavily regulated) that it is too materialistic and detrimental to human wellbeing. Another person might believe that the economic system is wrong because it is overly regulated because society is too concerned with environmentalism or with solidarity and not concerned enough with the flourishing of the strong.

B - An unrecognized or unrewarded contribution: Some individuals do things that benefit the community but go unrewarded (e.g. caring for children, volunteering, producing art); others might think they benefit the community when they do not. Some people might choose to fulfill care responsibilities rather than recognized contribution without considering whether it should count as a social contribution.

C - Insufficient pay (under-recognized or under-rewarded contribution): Some people might have access to jobs they would be willing to do if the pay or the recognition was reasonable to them, but do not find the jobs offered to them to have sufficient rewards. Anyone might think they are underpaid, but only some (probably mostly those near the bottom of the income distribution) object so strongly that they would rather live off a social minimum than accept employment.

D - Difficult or unpleasant working conditions: Laborers might object that their contributory obligation requires them to perform relatively difficult work, while others are (for whatever reason) allowed to satisfy their contributory obligation with more pleasant possibilities.

E - Unfulfilling opportunities: People whose only job opportunities are relatively boring, low-status, or unfulfilling might decide to refuse unless they are offered something better.

F - Insufficient opportunities and unemployment: Some people might want to contribute in a way that is well rewarded by the community, but for whatever reason can’t get that job. Some people might have lost their job or be unable to find the kind of job they are looking for. Some might lack the required ability, and some might simply lack recognition of their ability.

G - Improving skills: Some people would like to drop out of participation temporarily to improve their skills or to begin a project that will allow them to reenter with more desirable opportunities. Society might recognize some reimprovement of skill as a contribution, and so for this to be considered a refusal to cooperate the individual must be improving her skills in some unapproved or unrecognized manner.

H - Objection to hierarchy: Some people might be perfectly willing to perform the functions they are offered but might object to the hierarchical structure in which those jobs are placed. But of course, it is always possible that someone might object that the structure of society is not hierarchical enough.

I - Objection to the specific place in a hierarchy offered to an individual: Some people might not be opposed to hierarchy in general, but object to the low position in the hierarchy that their functions place them. Individuals might have good or bad reasons for believing they merit a higher place.

J - Objection to the standard of fairness of the system (including the role of luck, discrimination, nepotism, social advantage, etc.): Any system with different roles for people and an imperfect ability to give maximal opportunities to everyone will run into somebody with a legitimate complaint about bad luck. Discrimination and social disadvantage are not simply bad luck; they are socially created arbitrary factors. They create similarly arbitrary outcomes that could inspire a similar unwillingness to participate. There might also be people who accept only unfairness in their favor, such as racists who are not willing to cooperate in any project that includes other races. Society might try to reduce these problems, but it is unlikely that they will have the ability to eliminate them.

K - Objection to the required level of effort: A person might believe that the effort demanded of her is larger than necessary even if others work hard. Or, she might believe that no one else works hard enough or that her extra efforts are not rewarded sufficiently.

L – Grievance: Someone might refuse social cooperation because she believes that she or a member of her family had been wrongly punished or wrongly deprived of rights, property, or privilege.

M - Insufficient range of options: A person might refuse to participate just because there aren’t enough varied choices of how to participate. I hesitate to include this objection, because presumably most people who object to the range of options have some specific objection to each offer in the range of options. However, it is conceivable that someone might refuse an option they genuinely like just because they believe they have too few options to choose from.

N - Mental or physical disorder: Some people might appear lazy, gaming, or weak-willed who actually suffer from depression or some other mental disorder that inhibits their ability to interact with others and hold a position. Physical disorders (whether recognized or not) might have a similar effect.

If you think none of these possibilities have or could ever possibly apply to you, then it will probably continue to make sense to believe in the absolute moral rightness of work and the moral wrongness of not working. But if you think any of these could apply, and that the possibility exists for the moral wrongness of a job to outweigh the moral wrongness of not working, then perhaps enabling the option of not working empowers people to make that choice?
If you faced a choice between:

* Working for someone who greatly injured or even killed someone you love
* Working for a company that sells snake oil
* Working for a business that dumps toxic waste in your backyard
* Working with other workers who make your life miserable
* Working for slave wages insufficient to cover your basic needs
* Working a job you love for zero pay, making you unable to live despite all your hard work
* Working a job that promises a shortened life, like breathing in asbestos and guaranteeing cancer

Not working until you can find a job or situation that is none of the above
Would you appreciate that last choice as an option?

If a side-effect of enabling that option of not working is that it directly results in everyone working suddenly earning larger incomes than anyone not working, then does that not improve upon the current situation of people working earning the same incomes of people not working? Isn't that then too an example of something that is more right or less wrong than what we have right now?

Right now someone can get $12,000 for not working while someone working gets the same. Basic income would double the pay of the worker.

If another side-effect of enabling the option of not working is that it directly results in everyone who pretends to work in their job but actually gets paid to do nothing suddenly gaining the ability to quit their job, while also enabling those who really want to work but can't find work to fill these same jobs, in a way that these jobs are actually done and done happily/well instead of just pretending or done unhappily/poorly, doesn't this too provide an example of an outcome that is more right and less wrong than we have right now?

Do we want to pay people to do nothing at work while preventing those who want to actually work from working?

If you can consider all of these questions and still feel as strongly as you did before you considered them of how wrong basic income is compared to anything/everything else, then that's that and I have no desire to change your mind. Nor will I pass judgment.
But if you can consider all of these questions and feel a bit less strongly, concluding that there are possibly some circumstances no matter how remote, where you yourself would not want to be forced to do something even more wrong in your eyes than not working, then I think that's really something to consider in your judgment of the idea of basic income and those who support it.


Source: Scott Santens Blog
To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Paul-UB40, El-dudeareno

UBI: what it is - an introduction/UNCONDITIONAL BASIC INCOME 101 02 Aug 2017 04:56 #3860

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150

A good introduction to UBI from Scott Santens, a propagandist for the idea of Unconditional Basic Income.

UBI is often considered a sort of utopian concept, but it is not only real but necessary if we want to progress as mankind.
It requires a leap into a different way of thinking, for instance UBI is not associated with the traditional left/right politics but with a progressive (and against regressive) humanistic tradition.
A tradition started with the enlightenment and somehow kidnapped by Marxism/Capitalism dialectics in the 19th Century.
UBI is a concept that will redefine the social history of the 2st Century but is a battle still to be won, and it will not be easy.





Humanity Needs Universal Basic Income in Order to Stop Impeding Progress


This image is hidden for guests. Please log in or register to see it.

I believe Richard Feynman was one greatest scientific minds.

He had a very particular way of looking at the world thanks to his father, and it was to look at the world around him as if he were a Martian.

Like a fish born into water, it’s hard to actually see water as being water, because it’s all a fish ever knows.
And so as humans, it’s a good idea to try and step outside of our usual frame of mind, to see what it is we as humans think and do, from the perspective of a mind totally alien to our everyday environment. With that in mind, here’s what humans are doing right now, from the perspective of someone from far, far away...”


...[read the full article]

Source: Huffington Post
To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
The following user(s) said Thank You: Paul-UB40, El-dudeareno

UBI: what it is - an introduction/UNCONDITIONAL BASIC INCOME 101 07 Aug 2017 03:41 #3892

  • Brutus
  • Brutus's Avatar
  • OFFLINE
  • Senior Member
  • Posts: 79
  • Thank you received: 150
"Have you ever feared that moment of economic insecurity? Encountered some unpredictable event, lost a job or simply just left the university not knowing what’s to come. Guy Standing talks about how flexible economic practices create conditions of uncertainty and unpredictability in our life, we might soon face a disruption of the whole economic system. He shows how basic income can be vital and affordable tool to respond to the changing world of work.

Guy Standing, who is a Professorial Research Associate at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, has written books about social uncertainty and economic insecurity. In his bestseller “Basic Income: A 21st Century Economic Right”, he argues that “Every person, regardless of age, sex, marital status or work status, should have the right to a basic income, adequate to enable him or her to cover basic needs.”
"

To eliminate unemployment one needs only to eliminate the unemployed
The administrator has disabled public write access.
­